Egypt is a country mainly in North Africa, with the Sinai Peninsula forming a land bridge in Southwest Asia. The ancient Egyptian name of the country is Kemet, which means “black land”, referring to the fertile black soils of the Nile flood plains, distinct from the deshret , or “red land” of the desert. Covering an area of about 390,000 sq mi, the country is divided into 4 main geological areas: Nile Valley and Delta, Western Desert, Eastern Desert, Sinai Peninsula. Its ancient ruins, such as those of Memphis, Thebes, and Karnak and the Valley of the Kings outside Luxor, are a significant focus of archaeological study. Egypt is the most populated country in the Middle East and the third most populous on the African continent, at about 80 million inhabitants in 2009. Ethnic Egyptians constitute 95% of Egypt’s total population. Egypt’s minorities include Nubians, Berbers (Siwa Oasis), Bedouins, Arabs, Turks, and Greeks, additionally two small tribal communities: the Bejas and Doms. Egypt also hosts an unknown number of refugees and asylum seekers, estimated to be between 500,000 and 3 million. An estimated “35 to 40%” of Egypt’s population earn less than the equivalent of $2 a day.